At the end of 1943, ov££ two hundred regular periodicals had been published in Poland, among them even aeronautical and children's journals. Certain of the periodicals had had pictures printed by a three- colour process, and there were new editions of Polish literary classics, running to hundreds of pages per volume, as well as new breviaries, school primers, etc.* Certain journals, such as Rzeczpospotita (The Polish Republic), the official organ of the Government, the Wiadomosci Pohkie (Polish News), the official organ of the Commander of the Home Army, or, finally, the most popular of them all the Biuletyn Informacyjny (Information Bulletin) were published in 40,000 copies per issue. And the aggregate printing of all the underground periodical press was calcu- lated to be at least 500,000 copies. Taking it as definite that each copy was read by at least ten persons, the figure of five million readers is reached. The very names of many of the periodicals expressed the indomitable will of the Polish people : " Poland Lives " (Polska Zyje), " The Struggle Goes On " (Walka Trwd), " The Road to Freedom '* (Droga Wolnosd), " Poland in the Struggle " (Polska w walce), " The Rampart" (Szaniec\ "The Struggle and Freedom" (Walka i Wolnosc), "The Watch" (Wand), "Reveille" (Pobudka), "We fight for Truth and Poland" (Walczymy o Prawde i Polske), " The Pioneer " (Pionier), "Tomorrow " (Jutro), " The Cause " (Sprasoa), "To Arms " (Do Bram)9 " Serve Poland " (Polsce Sluz)> " The Army and Independence " (Woisko i Niepodleglosc\ " Free Poland " (Wolna Polska). In order to publish a newspaper it was necessary to have an organisation, feach member had to act individually and secretly. The material had to be collected separately, a difficult and highly dangerous proceeding. Each individual connected with the organisation submitted to the strongest discipline, for to make a slip meant disclosure and death. Accidents did frequently happen, however, and the German police caught people with newspapers in their possession, or5 less frequently, they stumbled on a supply of' stationery,' but it was seldom that a hidden wireless was discovered (possession of a set was forbidden) or the actual printing premises unearthed. But the publishers of the Underground press were not only printers, they were soldiers as well. There was never any question of surrender, the house became a fortress. Grenades were used, the machine- guns rattled. Death marked the end of this battle. The invaders were not given the satisfaction of being able to imprison or hang the editors and, therefore, they took revenge on the neighbours. There was one well- * In discussion of the secret press, attention must be drawn to the tremendous part played by poetry, the " lion's milk * on which the Polish people have always been fed. Each edition of a periodical^ even the most important, found a place for it. Certain poems and verses learned by heart at school, acquired particular value and significance. There was the case of the fifteen-year-old boy, a member of the Home Army3 who, captured by the Gestapo in the act of distributing periodicals, was subjected to torture. When the Underground got a secret message to bj*n asking how they could help him and what he needed, he answered in the words of the poet Asnyk: " Though I perish, though I fall, yet life will not have been squandered, for the finest part of life is in such struggle and pursuit. It will be worth seeing that magic building of crystal from afar. It will be worth paying with blood and pain to enter that region of the ideal."